Contained Arrangements: Tsuboniwa, Tokonoma, Ikebana

Tsuboniwa: A contained Japanese garden, usually within a courtyard.  It is often meant to be viewed from within the house.  These type of gardens often rely on the use of balanced asymmetry.


Tokonoma: A built-in recessed space, or alcove, for contemplation and display of botanicals and/or art.  It is often found in the reception room (zashiki) of the house.  The tokonoma may contain a scroll, incense burner, fresh flowers artfully arranged (ikebana), or a painting.


Ikebana: The Japanese art of flower arrangement.  The focus of this discipline is bringing humanity and nature closer together.  Living material is arranged and displayed with the same intention as paintings or sculpture.